Sure, you could use this for a short story, but I’d recommend you zoom-in further for a short story, focusing on a single scene. This beat sheet is for an entire character arc. I guess it depends on the length of your story.
I used to do an exercise called One Minute Thrillers, where I wrote a three-act short story in 12 sentences, with one sentence per beat along the heros journey.
So, it’s totally possible. Depends on the kind of short you want to write.
Here’s a link to a post I did about short stories. That might help too. I use a different shape for them, compared to novels.